CPR/AED Summary

Check the Area

Look for hazards

Split electrical wires, fire, unstable building structure or anything else that could present a risk to the responder. Make sure that you do not put yourself in danger.

  • Put on gloves if you have them.

Check Level of Consciousness

  • If YES, check the victim for other conditions and call for help if necessary.
  • If NO call 911 -If you’re alone with the (ADULT) victim, try to call for help prior to starting CPR. For child or infant  after 2 minutes of CPR call 911.
  • DO NOT leave the victim alone.
  • DO NOT try to make the victim drink liquids.
  • DO NOT move or shake victim if victim has sustained spinal or neck injury.

In 2010 A B C changed to C A B( compressions, airway, breathing) for lay rescuer.

  • Adult Victim: Count aloud as you compress 30 times.  Give the victim 2 breaths. Repeat.
  • To prevent fatigue the rescuers should change roles every 2 minutes – the rotation should be accomplished as quickly as possible to minimize interruptions in compressions.

Note 2010 AHA guide lines call for compressions only, for lay rescuer unwilling to give mouth-to mouth breaths.

Compressions – begin compressions

Correct position for Adult. The arms are fully extended and the thrusts are given from the hips.

Airway – open the airway

Tilt head back lift chin up

Breathing – check for breathing

After opening the victim’s airway, check to see if the victim is breathing.

  • 1. You may Feel the victim’s breath against your cheek.
  • 2. You may Hear the air entering or escaping your victim’s lungs.
  • 3. You may See the chest rise and fall with each breath.
  • 4. You may Smell the breath of the victim as they exhale.

If victim is breathing place the victim in the recovery position unless a spinal injury is suspected in which it is crucial not to move the patient.

If victim is Not breathing No pulse, give  2 rescue breaths. Repeat cycle until EMS workers arrive or victim awakes.

Compressions to Breaths Ratio Table:

CPR Table
Age Group
Adult
Child
Infant
Single-Person
30-2 30-2 30-2
Two-Person
30-2 15-2 15-2
Technique
Both hands One hand Two fingers

Heimlich Maneuver Video>>Adult Choking

Heimlich Maneuver Video>>Child Choking

Heimlich Maneuver Video>>Infant Choking

Automated External Defibrillator?

An Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is a small, lightweight device used to assess a person’s heart rhythm. If necessary, it administers an electric shock to restore a normal rhythm in victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Built-in computers assess the patient’s heart rhythm, judge whether defibrillation is needed, and administer an appropriate level of shock. Audible and/or visual prompts guide the user through the process.

How Does an AED Work?

A microprocessor inside the defibrillator analyzes the victim’s heart rhythm through adhesive electrodes (some AED models require the operator to press an ANALYZE button). The computer then advises the operator whether a shock is needed. When the operator responds to the prompt to give a shock, an electric current is delivered through the victim’s chest wall through adhesive electrode pads.

Why Are AEDs Important?

When a person suffers a sudden cardiac arrest, the chances of survival are reduced by 7 to 10 percent with every minute that passes without CPR and de-fibrillation. The American Red Cross estimates that 50,000 lives could be saved each year if AEDs were widely used.

Who Can Use an AED?

Anyone trained to use cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can  use an AED. Most AEDs are designed to be used by people without medical backgrounds, such as police, firefighters, flight attendants, security guards and lay rescuers.

Will an AED Always Resuscitate Someone in Cardiac Arrest?

No. The victim also requires breathing support. AEDs are less successful when the victim has been in cardiac arrest for more than a few minutes, especially if no CPR was administered.

Don’t do this!
Do not shock if:

  • The victim is close to explosive or flammable material.
  • The victim is wet (dry the victim off with a towel).
  • The victim has a medicine patch on them.
  • The victim is touching an object that could conduct the charge to others. (A metal bench)
  • Check for a cell phone on the patient and remove it to a distance of 6 feet or more.
  • Remember, life over limb (or possessions, in this case.)
  • Electrode placement is crucial.
  • The AED machine will clearly talk you through all steps of the process.
  • CPR must be stopped while the defibrillator is monitoring the victim’s heart activity.
  • In all cases, defibrillation has priority over CPR.
  • Do not touch the victim or the AED.

Calling For Help

If a bystander has not already summoned assistance (known as EMS, Ambulance Service, Rescue Squad, or Paramedics depending on the region) call immediately.
If you’re alone, you must stop and call yourself.

You will need to give the emergency services:

  • Your exact location
  • The illness or injury that the victim is having (to the best of your knowledge).
  • A telephone number you can be contacted back.

C for Circulation

Chest compressions help squeeze the heart from outside the victim’s chest, helping to circulate blood around. When performing chest compressions during CPR, you are helping move the oxygen you delivered through rescue breathing where it is needed.

Chest compressions are often started before any other intervention in an emergency setting, because even blood that has already passed through the body has oxygen remaining to be used. Using compressions to pump that existing blood around can help buy the victim more time.

Technique

The goal is always to compress in the center of the chest. This means that compressions are to performed on the sternum or breastbone of the victim, in line with the victim’s armpits or nipple line.

  • For adults (12 and older) – place the heel of one hand in the centre of the chest, bring your other hand to rest on top of the first hand, and interlock your fingers. Bring your shoulders directly above your hands, keeping your arms straight. You should then push down firmly onto the heel of the lower hand, depressing the chest to about one third (1/3) of its depth.
  • For children (1-12) – place the heel of one hand in the center of the chest. Bring your shoulder directly above your hand, with your arm straight, and perform compressions to one third (1/3) the depth of the chest with one arm only.
  • For infants (1-12 months) – Use your forefinger and middle finger only. Compressing the chest about one third (1/3) of it’s depth.

Making Compressions Effective

You are aiming for a rate of 100 compressions per minute, which includes the time to give rescue breaths too. In practice, you should get just over 2 cycles of 30 compressions in along with breaths per minute.

  • The victim should be on a hard surface.
  • Keep your arms straight.
  • If you lose count, don’t stop, just estimate.
  • Chest compressions are tiring, rotate between rescuer.

When to Stop CPR

  • The victim starts breathing spontaneously.
  • The victim vomits
  • Qualified help arrives
  • DO NOT STOP until instructed to.
  • You are unable to continue.
  • You put yourself in danger by continuing – If your life is endangered by a new hazard, you should stop CPR. If possible, remove the victim from the hazardous situation as well, but never at the risk of your own life or health.

Good Samaritan Laws

Best Practice
All rescuers should not be afraid of liability affecting them whilst performing their duties. In many cases, it is often best to provide care and to do so to the best of your ability without worry of legal implications.
Good Samaritan laws in the United States and Canada are laws that reduce the liability to those who choose to aid others who are injured or ill, though it does not protect you from being sued; it just significantly reduces your liability.
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